This English Phonology in the form of phonology assignment is designed for understanding appearance of different pronunciation in certain lexeme. The discussion so far may suggest a rather straight forward understanding, when misspronounced exist because of different pronunciation with foreigner, American, British or Autralians pronunciation. In this case, it may highly suggested that the outline which constructed by student, learner’s EFL, understanding is based on British or others pronunciation. Moreover, for almost six years studying English as foreign language, student do not learn the rules of spoken language by explicit intruction, learning the phonetic transcription for instance. Nevertheless, student learn pronunciation by a combination of copying what they hear, and building up mental generalizations based on their experiences. For examples, they copying how actress and actors pronounce certain words in movie, or even how singer pronounce certain words in their lyric. In conclusion, it may be logically understood if phonological representation (lexeme) of learners EFL generally have the same basic understanding, equality of pronouncing lexeme on their experience.
Again, we seem readily able to perceive that all of these phonological construction, as one main subject of study, already constucted by phonologist and it can’t be objected. There is a set of IPA, international Phonetic Alphabet, phonetic transcription in dictionary, and variants rules of English pronunciation which distributed to us as learners of EFL. On the other hand, somehow, as student who learn EFL we were watchful enough to aware that some pronunciation in lexeme is not relevant, unrecognizable, or inconsistent. Meanwhile, within phonology assignment, we will try to discuss inconsistency pronouncing lexeme. Precisely, how to distinguist the different pronouncing lexeme within phonological construction point of view by observing the existence. For all of these cases, the assignment is important for phonology study in the light of new paradigm in world-English phonology. As the same time, what we need is a consistency of result after observation.
So far, the observation is looking at some particular distinction of pronouncing the word garage. Essentially, we may have deflection between British and American’s phonetic transcription, according to Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Somehow, in British pronunciation the word garage transcribed as /ˈgær.ɑːʒ/, while in American pronunciation the word garage transcribed as /gəˈrɑːʒ/. On the other hand, during my observation the word garage continuously pronounced as /ger. eɪdʒ /. All of those transcription allow us to mainly discuss the appearance vowel [æ] in British phonetic transcription, vowel [ə] in American phonetic transcription, and vowel [e] during my observation. Within the emergence for all of those vowels, [æ], [ə] and [e], the assignment should be pass fit on phonological representation (lexeme) of learners of EFL. At last, my warmest observation where taking at English Department Faculty of Letters within the involvement of my classmate as the data. Even where there are physical object that are identifiable and involved in the communication, somehow, the data may not recognized as consistent. Soon, recognizable that the emergence of pronouncing formal lexeme in the word garage is particulary various. Fortunately, the key word, lexeme garage, recorded in porposed to marked the different.
In the case of appearance [æ], [ə], and [e], different pronunciation and phonetic transcription allow us to recognized the data fit enough for the assignment. As the assignment include variant spelling of English pronunciation which distributed to us as learners of EFL. The different between those three different vowels may fit enough to porposing the assignment.
Analysis and Discussion
The most extreme view, like the most extreme view of non-phonological context, sees the different of the pronunciation of the word garage as wholy unsuitable in term of the phonetic transcription. Its completely conscious that the word garage, my data, was pronounced as /ger.eɪdʒ/. The emergence of the phonetic transcription /ger.eɪdʒ/ in the word garage, trigger further discussion into phonology assignment. In my point of view, my data is really fit into the assignment because the word garage, presumably, assumed as inconsistency pronouncing lexeme or unstable. So far, the word garage have three different phonetic transcription, British /ˈgær.ɑːʒ/, American /gəˈrɑːʒ/, and my data /ger.eɪdʒ/. The emergence of vowel [æ], [ə], and [e] indicate that the word garage categorized as inconsistency of pronounced lexeme or unstable. Soon, each of these contrasting pairs of vowels indicate that every single person have their own phonological representation. Finally, the difference of vowels [æ], [ə], and [e] in the word garage, presumably, fit with the assignment.
Systemic difference in case of vowel phonemes [æ], [ə], and [e] can be read easily by comparing with formal lexeme. Acknowledge that we must to stand for the stable point of view, at least we already choose British spelling system to differentiate the difference. The word garage should be pronounced as /ˈgær.ɑːʒ/, somehow, my data pronounced garage as /ger.eɪdʒ/. The appearance, first vowels, of phone [æ] on formal lexeme and phone [ə] on my data, considerably, indicate both vowels are different. When we turn to comparing the data with formal lexeme, trusty, the emergence of vowel [æ] on formal lexeme and [ə] on my data are extremely different.
In other areas of discussion, this opportunity notably recognized as description of distinctive feature of the lexeme by isolating the distinctive feature. The word garage, formally, pronounced as /ˈgær.ɑːʒ/, in fact my data pronounced it as /ger.eɪdʒ/. Distributional differences fall into two subproblematic clases. First, the appearance of phones [æ] and [e] in first vowels sound. Second, the appearance of phones [e] and [I] instead of [ɑː]. As the assignment only need one major case, somehow, we will going deeply discuss about the first subproblematic classes, the emergence of phone [e] instead of [æ] in the word garage as my single lexeme.
In defining how the vowels differ, then, we must consider describe the distictive feature by using phonetic book to the name sound. Of course, we need English Phonetics by A. Kusuma and English Phonetics and Phonology by Peter Roach to distinguished the differences. On the one hand, let us try to classify vowels [æ] and [e] in the word garage /ˈgær.ɑːʒ/ on formal lemxeme and /ger.eɪdʒ/ on my data. According to Englsih Phonetic’s book, vowel [æ] identified as open vowel and [e] identified as half-close vowel. Open vowel described when the lips are spread or neutral, and the opening between jaws is mediun to wide. For examples in word initial /a/ such as sat /sæt/, hand /hænd/, in word initial /ai/ such as plait /plæt/, plaid /plæd/, and in word initial /l/ such as alphabet /ˈæl.fə.bet/, and shall /ʃæl/. Meanwhile, half-open vowel described when the lips are spread, and the opening between jaws is medium. For examples in spelling /e/ such as set /set/, bed /bed/, in word initial /ea/ such as dead /ded/, head /hed/, in word initial /a/ such as many /ˈmen.i/, breath /breθ/, and in word initial /ai/ or /ay/ such as said /sed/ and says /seɪ/. From explaination above, the indication of emergence vowels [æ] and [e] in the word garage particularly differ the vowels into open vowel and half-close vowel. In conclusion, both vowels [æ] and [e] are different go along with phonetic book that explained before.
Recognising that two object or phonemes are ‘the same but different’ ought to present a major phonological rules, those phonemes [æ] and [e] are entirely seperated sounds, but it doesn’t sound so strange in term of communication. The term of outline which constructed by student understanding is based on British or others pronunciation, equality of pronouncing lexeme based on their experience. The same goes for the emergence of phone [e] instead of [æ] in the word garage /ˈgær.ɑːʒ/ on formal lexeme, and /ger.eɪdʒ/ on my data. We often intuitions without knowing exactly how to express them. Within minimal pairs such as garish /ˈgeə.rɪʃ/ and gate /geɪt/, the emergence of phone [e] seem to be posible. Meanwhile, we also can find phone [æ] in the word garret /ˈgær.ɪt/ and garrison /ˈgær.ɪ.s ə n/. In constructing the different of phone [æ] and [e] let us try to look at phonetic transcription on formal way from the word garage /ˈgær.ɑːʒ/. The appearance of phone [æ] show the phone [e] is completely different from the first vowel of formal lexeme /ˈgær.ɑːʒ /. From this point of view, we can assume that the initial sound of [æ] in formal lexeme of garage is replaced by [e] in the data. Furtermore, we also need to remember that phonemes [æ] and [e] are realised as different phones, but the appearance phone [e] may naturally influenced by the pronouncing [e] in alphabet /a/. In conclusion, equality of pronouncing phones based on their experience, influenced by the pronouncing [e] in alphabet /a/.
We noted that the word garage draw into two different pronunciation there are /ˈgær.ɑːʒ / on formal lexeme and /ger.eɪdʒ/ on the data. In practicing componential analysis, accidental gap, we will used minimal pairs to identified, classified and categorized whether the emergence phone [e] considered as accidental gap or systematical gap. The emergence of phones [æ] and [e] realised as different, within phonological point of view, categorized as accidental gap. As we have seen, the emergence of the word garish /ˈgeə.rɪʃ/ and gate /geɪt/ indicate that the phoneme [e] in word initial /a/ in the word garage is frequently used. Since the emergence of phone [e] in word initial /a/ which comfirmed in minimal pairs above, presumably, we can categorized the emergence of phone [e] in the word garage considered as accidental gap.
At last, the key does IPA, international Phonetic Alphabet, contain all the symbols of sounds you wished to present is indicate’s positive likely help to maintain the phonetic transcription. So far, to indicate phonetic transcription in the word garage /ˈgær.ɑːʒ /, here, as an amateur phonologist we do not have any difficulties to identified the different of each phoneme. Phonetic transcription, like /ger.eɪdʒ/ identified later during frequently hear the recording device. Within the representation of phonetic transcription, each symbols on my data, IPA system truly help the way how we transcribed the word garage on informal ways, my data.
Taking phonetic and phonology as the most basic level to accomplish the assignment, will account in the light of new paradigm in world-English phonology. A major discussion of the assignment actually about the emergence of certain phones in lexeme, phonological representation of learners EFL. The emergence of phone [e] in stead of [æ], in the word garage, believed as the particular distinction of phonological representation. The issue of transformational phoneme in lexeme which cause of learner’s representation, may be explained as the consistency pronouncing alphabet. Furthermore, the emergence of phone [e] in word initial /a/, in fact, doesn’t change the meaning of garage /ger.eɪdʒ/ instead of garage /ˈgær.ɑːʒ /. So far, the distinction between phone [e] and [æ] was categorized as open vowel and half-close vowel. Moreover, the emergence of vowel [e] categorized as accidental gap. It is because the appearance of phone [e] in word initial /a/ is also extremely happen in another lexeme. Further discussion may involved to English spelling system. Curiously, different spelling indicate English spelling system of certain dictionary may not be fit in certain learner of EFL. Where some words it will, naturally, have a variety of pronunciation, many sound to one spelling and many spelling to one sound, concept that recognized as ambiguity in English spelling system.
Finally, as a student of English Department University of Jember, the term of good and bad speech on English Phonetics which written by A. Kusuma, should be fit on us. Good spech may be defined as a way of speaking which is clearly intelligible to all ordinary people. Meanwhile, bad speech is a way of talking which is difficult for most people to understand. Within the appearance of phone [e] instead of [æ] in the word garage, should be accepted as unique pronunciation that produced by learner’s EFL. It is because learner’s EFL may be have their own phonologinal interpretation, somehow, student learn pronunciation by a combination of copying what they hear, and building up mental generalizations based on their experiences.
Hornby, A.S. 1995. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Great Britain. Oxford University Press.
Cambridge. 2008. Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Great Britain. Cambridge University Press.
Giegerich, H.J. 1992. English Phonology. Great Britain. Cambridge University Press.
Roach, P.1998. English Phonetics and Phonology. Australia. University of Reading.
McMahon, P. 2002. An Introduction of English Phonology. Edinburg. Edinburg University Press Ltd.